The Complete Idiots Guide to Green Cleaning, 2nd Edition

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The uniform number of each member on a sports team A list of the graduating high school seniors by class rank Final exam scores for my statistics class on a scale of 0 to U We classify data as either quantitative or qualitative. U Nominal data is assigned to categories with no mathematical comparisons between observations. U Ordinal data has all the properties of nominal data with the additional capability of arranging the observations in order. U Interval data has all the properties of ordinal data with the additional capability of calculating meaningful differences between the observations.

U Ratio data has all the properties of interval data with the additional capability of expressing one observation as a multiple of another. In its basic form, making sense of the patterns in the data can be very difficult because our human brains are not very efficient at processing long lists of raw numbers. We do a much better job of absorbing data when it is presented in summarized form through tables and graphs. In the next several sections, we will examine many ways to present data so that it will be more useful to the person performing the analysis.

Through these techniques, we are able to get a better overview of what the data is telling us. And believe me, there is plenty of data out there with some very interesting stories to tell. Stay tuned. The best way to describe a frequency distribution is to start with an example.

Anyway, below is a table of the batting averages of individual Pirates at the end of the season. I have not attached names with these averages in order to protect their identities.

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A frequency distribution is a table that shows the number of data observations that fall into specific intervals. Transforming this data into the frequency distribution shown here makes this fact more obvious. Batting Average Number of Players. In this example, the intervals are the batting average ranges in the first column of the table.

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The intervals in a frequency distribution are officially known as classes, and the number of observations in each class is known as class frequencies. Using this data, I have constructed the following frequency distribution.


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From classes of equal size. I chose 3 data values to be in each class for this distribution. An example of a class is 0—2, which includes the number of days when John made 0, 1, or 2 calls. Make classes mutually exclusive, or in other words, prevent classes from overlapping. Try to have no fewer than 5 classes and no more than 15 classes. Too few or too many classes tend to hide the true characteristics of the frequency distribution.

Avoid open-ended classes, if possible for instance, a highest class of 15—over. Classes are considered mutually exclusive when observations can only fall into one class. Include all data values from the original table in a class. In other words, the classes should be exhaustive. Too few or too many classes will obscure patterns in a frequency distribution. Consider the extreme case where there are so many classes that no class has more than one observation.

The other extreme is where there is only one class with all the observations residing in that class.

This would be a pretty useless frequency distribution! Rather than display the number of observations in each class, this method calculates the percentage of observations in each class by dividing the frequency of each class by the total number of observations. Relative frequency distributions display the percentage of observations of each class relative to the total number of observations.

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The total percentage in a relative frequency distribution should be percent or very close within 1 percent, because of rounding errors. Get it? Cousin, relative? This provides you with the percentage of observations that are less than or equal to the class of interest. The resulting cumulative frequency distribution is shown here. Cumulative frequency distributions indicate the percentage of observations that are less than or equal to the current class. According to this table, John used his phone 8 times or less on 84 percent of the days in the month.

If designed properly, frequency distribution is an excellent way to tease good information out of stubborn data. Figure 3. A histogram is a bar graph showing the number of observations in each class as the height of each bar. At least the highest class on the graph is the 0 to 2 calls per day. Things could be worse. How nice! The first thing we need to do is open Excel to a blank sheet and enter our data in Column A starting in Cell A1 use the data from the earlier table.

Next enter the upper limits to each class in Column B starting in Cell B1.


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For example, in the class 0—2, the upper limit would be 2. Random Thoughts For some bizarre reason, Excel refers to classes as bins. Go figure. Go to the Tools menu at the top of the Excel window and select Data Analysis. Select the Histogram option from the list of Analysis Tools see Figure 3.

Data Analysis dialog box. In the Histogram dialog box as shown in Figure 3. Then, click in the Bin Range list box and click in the worksheet to select cells B1 through B6 the upper limits for the 6 classes. Click OK to generate the frequency distribution and histogram see Figure 3. The problem here is that the histogram looks like an elephant sat on it. Click on the chart to select it, and then click on the bottom border to drag the bottom of the chart down lower, expanding the histogram to look like Figure 3.

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Frequency distributions and histograms are convenient ways to get an accurate picture of what your data is trying to tell you. The Chart Wizard allows me more control over the final appearance.

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A statistician named John Tukey originated the idea during the s. The major benefit of this approach is that all the original data points are visible on the display. Normally, Brian would only report his better scores, but we statisticians must be unbiased and accurate. Because there were 5 scores in the 70s, there are 5 digits to the right of 7. If we choose to, we can break this display down further by adding more stems.

The stem and leaf display splits the data values into stems the first digit in the value and leaves the remaining digits in the value. By listing all of the leaves to the right of each stem, we can graphically describe how the data is distributed. Here, the stem labeled 7 5 stores all the scores between 75 and The stem 8 0 stores all the scores between 80 and You can find an excellent source of information about stem and leaf displays at the Statistics Canada website at www. This type of chart is simply a circle divided into portions whose area is equal to the relative frequency distribution.